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Sustained and Repeated Mouth Opening Leads to Development of Painful Temporomandibular Disorders Involving Macrophage/Microglia Activation in Mice

Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a set of heterogeneous musculoskeletal conditions involving the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and/or the masticatory muscles. Up to 33% of the population has had at least one symptom of TMD with 5-10% of them requiring treatment. Common symptoms include limited jaw movement, joint sound, and pain in the orofacial area. Once TMD becomes chronic, it can be debilitating with comorbidities that greatly reduce one's overall quality of life. However, the underlying mechanism of TMD is unclear due to the multicausative nature of the disease.

Prevalence of TMD in Sjӧgren Syndrome Patients

Sjӧgren's Syndrome seems to play a role in temporomandibular joint disorders.

Early Molecular Response and Microanatomical Changes in the Masseter Muscle and Mandibular Head After Botulinum Toxin Intervention in Adult Mice

The Botox-injected masseters had greatly increased expression of genes involved in muscle atrophy at the 1 week time point compared to the control side muscles. At the end of the study, 2 weeks after injection, the Botox-injected masseters were about 20% smaller than the control side masseters, and the Botox-side condyles had lost about 40% of relative bone area compared to the control side condyles.

Centralized Pain in TMD: Is It All in the Head?

We are pleased to introduce Sophia Stone, a new contributor to The TMJ Association, whose passion is to separate TMD fact from TMD fiction. Sophia has a background in medicine and research and can draw on her personal experience as a TMD patient.

Hyperreactive Brain Network May Be Cause of Chronic Pain in Fibromyalgia, Study Suggests

  • Feb 14, 2018

Fibromyalgia is one of the overlapping pain conditions with TMD. This article appeared in Fibromyalgia News Today on January 15, 2018.

A new study suggests a hyperreactive brain network may be the underlying cause of chronic pain in fibromyalgia. The study, "Functional Brain Network Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity in Chronic Pain," was published in the journal of Scientific Reports.

The report shows that brain networks of fibromyalgia patients have an underlying hypersensitivity that leads them to overreact to stimulation in an explosive, widespread, and synchronized manner.

This type of response is called explosive synchronization (ES), a phenomenon that occurs both in biological and technological networks, such as during epileptic seizures or power grid failures.

"For the first time, this research shows that the hypersensitivity experienced by chronic pain patients may result from hypersensitive brain networks," Richard Harris, the study's co-senior author and associate professor of anesthesiology at the Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center at Michigan Medicine, said in a press release.

The electrical activity of the brains of 10 female fibromyalgia patients were recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG), a noninvasive technique.

EEG results revealed that fibromyalgia patients do indeed display brain network configurations with explosive synchronization properties. In each patient, researchers found a significant correlation between the degree of ES and the intensity of reported chronic pain.

Researchers then used computer models of brain activity to simulate how a fibromyalgia brain reacts to stimulation. They found that the fibromyalgia brain was more sensitive to electrical stimulation than a brain model without ES characteristics.

"As opposed to the normal process of gradually linking up different centers in the brain after a stimulus, chronic pain patients have conditions that predispose them to linking up in an abrupt, explosive manner," said UnCheol Lee, the study's first author, a physicist and assistant professor of anesthesiology at Michigan Medicine.

According to the team, this type of modeling could help guide future treatments for fibromyalgia as brain regions important for explosive synchronization behavior and therapies that target it can first be tested on a computer model.

It is still unknown from a global brain perspective which of the brain network interactions create the subjective sensation of chronic pain. This study suggests, for the first time, that the explosive synchronization phenomena might be the cause of chronic pain in fibromyalgia patients.

Overlapping Conditions

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